One review for Hikmet Ersek, CEO – Western Union/The CITY OF DALLAS needs to collect payments without using a middle man

Here is a consumer’s comment about the service they were given by Western Union and THE CITY OF DALLAS,TEXAS:

I just paid an old mans’ ticket online for a toll road violation. $55. ok.

Your western union charged me $7.95 for the payment. I hope your company goes bankrupt.

That’s abuse and there’s no other way to pay online with the city of Dallas Texas.

Talk about corruption! Who did you pay for that monopoly?

C.L. Schertz, TX

How Western Union and META BANK are related one to the other is unclear to me. They appear to be related.

The real issue and problem may be that a fee of $55 became $62.95 so about $63 with additional and unexpected fees. The middle man has to make a profit…. why use a middle man? The middleman makes a 13% profit just for handling the transaction.

The guy who paid western union must have been taken by surprise by the existence of the middleman’s fee. It makes no sense to me why the State of Texas or whatever agency it was who was collecting a toll road violation doesn’t do their own collecting of fees directly.

On the form received by the payee, it should have been spelled out in writing ahead of time the choices for how to pay and if particular choices would cost the payee more… This puts the payee in control of how they spend their money.

All that consumers want is clear and correct information from which we can make informed choices. Given the tone of the message from our man in Texas, it appears that he was hit up with hidden and un-expected fees when he was paying the CITY OF DALLAS, TEXAS…. If you are living from pay check to pay check, it isn’t that you don’t know how to manage your own money, it is that there is only a limited amount of money in the budget. $7.95 that was to be used to pay off another bill, let’s say, such as a credit card bill for that month, but which makes paying the credit card bill short about $8.00 will force that payee to incur high interest fees the next month.

The amount of $ 7.95 when it is un-expected can mess up someone who is on a very tight budget.  This is why the use of a middleman collection agency to transfer the funds seems inappropriate to this payee.That payee indicates that 

“there’s no other way to pay online with the city of Dallas Texas”.



Why couldn’t the old man pay in cash directly or mail in a check or pay the CITY OF DALLAS directly online without having to pay a MIDDLEMAN is unclear as well or by using a money order which also costs some money but which can be purchased from a US Post Office.

If a person makes an online payment, I believe that it is right for them to assume that they are paying the entity directly so that an added charge from Western Union must have come as a great surprise…. No one likes un-expected additional expenses especially when they are paying $55 already. Nothing had to be mailed so no postage was needed. Online purchases may have a delivery charge for a physical product, but this is a cash transfer from one bank account to another. If this money was going to the state of Texas, I would urge Texas to cut out the middle man!!!

Whatever happened to the concept that customer’s should be served???? Something failed to meet the customer above stated needs. How is it being addressed????? This is really a question for the CITY OF DALLAS who in this case is the partner company for WESTERN UNION who is acting like a collections agency for the CITY OF DALLAS in this case

I know that META BANK offers training sessions to other banks to encourage a furtherance of their practices. The same META BANK practices that we consider to be a major scam are being shared with other banking operations apparently to normalize the scam practices being used by META BANK.

This makes it even more urgent that META BANK’s practices which are harmful to consumers be stopped immediately.

It will take you as one person to speak up when you are abused by banks like META BANK. Then when we have all complained to everyone and everywhere perhaps we can get those changes that we so desperately need.

Consumers, take the time to go to the office in person and to pay in cash directly. Be sure to get a receipt for all cash payments.

All government offices are being sold this kind of service, and it is only a gimmick to make money for the middleman collections agency. Because META BANK has set up training sessions teaching their operating practices to other institutions to make what they do appear to be common place and therefore just the way that it is.

These partner companies and now government agencies are being basically wined and dined by these kinds of MIDDLE MEN COLLECTION AGENCIES in order to get access to this kind of income for themselves.

I know that time is money for most Americans and that we want things done quickly, but you won’t get quality service from any place at this time, unless you take action. In this case, this consumer is warning all people affected by collections being made by the CITY of DALLAS that they will have to pay more than expected.

People who live elsewhere should pay close attention to this middle man collection agency scam. Once they get your information from the partner company, they will make your life absolutely miserable. The consumer above is trying to protect you. Please pay attention.

To avoid going to trial in The CITY OF DALLAS, the wording is rather harsh on their website. Court fees and hiring an attorney are expensive. The bill can be paid by mail or in person, but it requires an admission of guilt.

Please understand if you have difficulties when using the on-line payment option, your other options
to pay are:

  1. Pay by mail: Mail payment to Dallas Municipal Court
    2014 Main, Room 101
    Dallas, Texas 75201
  2. Pay in person at: 2014 Main Street (Hours of operation are
    (7:30 am until 4:30 pm Monday-Friday and 8:00 am until
    12:00 pm Saturday)

Full citation payments are accepted at the City Detention Center at 1600 Chestnut. Open 24/7, including weekends and holidays.


I hereby understand that in accordance with Texas Code of Criminal Procedure, Art. 27.14(c), case payment will result in a waiver of a jury trial and a finding of guilty, which may be reported to the Texas Department of Public Safety. 

By paying your fine on this website you understand:

  1. No online payments will be accepted for:
    • Defensive Driving
    • Deferred Disposition
    • Cash Bonds
    • Juvenile Cases
    • Payment Plans
    • Payments for Individuals in Custody
    • $30.00 DPS/Omni Fee
    These cases must be handled in person at the court.
  1. You have waived your right to a trial.
  2. A plea of No Contest and a disposition of Guilty will be entered on your case.
  3. All payments will be posted the following work day; payments can be verified by
    calling 214-670-0109.
  4. Fines and/or warrant payments paid on a Friday, will not post until the following workday.
  5. The Court is not responsible for late payment. [ Please clarify how collections are made then better than what is currently present on your website. No mention of online payment fees are included on the opening pages. This is far too similar to the practices of META BANK to make us comfortable as consumer advocates.]

The CITY  OF DALLAS has created ONLINE PAYMENT LOCATIONS  even at their official locations so THE CITY OF DALLAS has given exclusive rights to WESTERN UNION to serve as their personal collections agency or so it seems. Why??? This makes no sense to me as a consumer and I must agree with the man who made the complaint above. If this is incorrect, then the website for the CITY OF DALLAS has not properly explained how to avoid paying online payment fees…. also The CITY OF DALLAS WEBSITE was written in English…. Even Canada has bilingual signage. Many European countries also have several languages on their official signs. Restaurants have sometimes 4 or 5 languages for their menus, but in the USA, we think the world must be all in English….. Culturally, we could be sitting in a room of non-English speakers and be unable to understand what they are saying among themselves…. Is that wise?

If we need a history lesson here about how Spanish speakers got into the southwest, including TEXAS, please note that the USA “annexed” these states and in that process disenfranchised the people who were already there. It is time for Anglo-Americans to be more realistic about their approach to being bilingual.

#1 As a monolingual person,and as an Anglo-speaker, you can only read news that is in English

#2 As a monolingual person, you have never taken the time to study adequately another culture, and often times what you say reflects your ignorance and paranoia of the others

#3 As a monolingual person, you have limited your own potential for growth and development

Places for The City of Dallas Texas online payment

It appears that even if a citizen actually goes to the court house to pay their fines/fees that they must use the online payment program.

THE FAQS page for the CITY of DALLAS giving the most asked questions seems to have overlooked this problem and it is a problem, especially if someone is living on a fixed budget or from pay check to paycheck.

One has to ask if the CITY OF DALLAS is too lazy to do their own collecting of money…. This would provide jobs for TEXAS residents




Western Union

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Western Union (disambiguation).
The Western Union Company
Western Union money transfer.png
Type Public
Traded as NYSE: WU
S&P 500 Component
Industry Financial services
Founded 1851
Founder(s) Ezra Cornell
Headquarters Englewood, Colorado, United States
Key people Jack M. Greenberg
Hikmet Ersek
(President and CEO)
Services Wire transfers
Money orders
Revenue Increase US$ 5.193 billion (2010)[1]
Operating income Increase US$ 1.300 billion (2010)[1]
Net income Increase US$ 909.9 million (2010)[1]
Total assets Increase US$ 7.929 billion (2010)[1]
Total equity Increase US$ 582.7 million (2010)[1]
Employees 7,000 (December 2010)[1]

The Western Union Company is a financial services and communications company based in the United States.

Its North American headquarters is in Englewood, Colorado. Up until it discontinued the service in 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S. company in the business of exchanging telegrams.[citation needed]

Western Union has several divisions, with products such as person-to-person money transfer, money orders, business payments and commercial services.

Western Union, as an industrialized monopoly, dominated the telegraph industry in the late 19th century. It was the first communications empire and set a pattern for American-style communications businesses as they are known today.


  • 1 History
    • 1.1 19th century
    • 1.2 20th century
    • 1.3 Involvement in early computer networking
    • 1.4 End of telegrams
    • 1.5 Acquisitions
  • 2 Specific services
    • 2.1 Online
    • 2.2 BidPay
    • 2.3 Western Union Mobile
    • 2.4 Sending and receiving funds
    • 2.5 Transfer fees
    • 2.6 Past services
  • 3 Sponsorship
  • 4 Scam industry
  • 5 Connection to military intelligence
    • 5.1 Blocked transactions
  • 6 Presidents of the company
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links


19th century

In 1851, the New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company was organized in Rochester, New York by Hiram Sibley and others, with the goal of creating one great telegraph system with unified and efficient operations. Meanwhile, Ezra Cornell had bought back one of his bankrupt companies and renamed it the New York & Western Union Telegraph Company. Originally fierce competitors, by 1855 both groups were finally convinced that consolidation was their only alternative for progress. The merged company was named The Western Union Telegraph Company at Cornell’s insistence, and Western Union was born.[2]

Western Union bought out smaller companies rapidly, and by 1860 its lines reached from the East Coast to the Mississippi River, and from the Great Lakes to the Ohio River. In 1861 it opened the first transcontinental telegraph. In 1865 it formed the Russian American Telegraph in an attempt to link America to Europe, via Alaska, into Siberia, to Moscow. (This project was abandoned in 1867.) The company enjoyed phenomenal growth during the next few years. Its capitalization rose from $385,700 in 1858 to $41 million in 1876. However it was top-heavy with stock issues, and faced growing competition from several firms, especially the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company–itself taken over by financier Jay Gould in 1875.[3]:196-201 In 1881 Gould took control of Western Union.[4][5]

Wilbur Bold, a 12-year old Western Union messenger boy, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1911.

It introduced the first stock ticker in 1866, and a standardized time service in 1870. The next year, 1871, the company introduced itsmoney transfer service, based on its extensive telegraph network. In 1879, Western Union left the telephone business, having lost apatent lawsuit with Bell Telephone Company.[6] As the telephone replaced the telegraph, money transfer would become its primary business.

When the Dow Jones Transportation Average stock market index for the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) was created in 1884, Western Union was one of the original eleven all-American companies tracked.

By 1900 Western Union operated a million miles of telegraph lines and two international undersea cables.

20th century

The company continued to grow, acquiring more than 500 smaller competitors. Its monopoly power was almost complete in 1943 when it bought Postal Telegraph, Inc., its chief rival.

Former headquarters of WU, located at 60 Hudson, New York, NY, USA, in the early and middle 20th century

In 1914 Western Union offered the first charge card for consumers; in 1923 it introduced teletypewriters to join its branches.

Singing telegrams followed in 1933, intercity fax in 1935, and commercial intercity microwave communications in 1943.

In 1958, it began offeringTelex service to customers in New York City.[7] Western Union introduced the ‘Candygram’ in the 1960s, a box of chocolates accompanying a telegram featured in a commercial with the rotund Don Wilson.

In 1964, Western Union initiated a transcontinental microwave system to replace land lines.

During World War II, families of sons in the military service dreaded the Western Union “boy on his bicycle” to arrive at their home with a telegram from the War Department or the Navy Department. The message began: The Secretary of War (soldiers and airmen) or Secretary of Navy (sailors and marines), regrets to inform you that, (name, rank and serial number of the man in the military service) was killed in action or missing in action.

Western Union became the first American telecommunications corporation to maintain its own fleet of geosynchronous communication satellites, starting in 1974. The fleet of satellites, called Westar, carried communications within the Western Union company for telegram and mailgram message data to Western Union bureaus nationwide. It also handled traffic for its Telex and TWX (Telex II) services. The Westar satellites’ transponders were also leased by other companies for relaying video, voice, data, and facsimile (fax) transmissions.

In 1963 Western Union organized its international cable system properties and its right-of-way for connecting international telegraph lines into a separate company called Western Union International (WUI) which it divested that year to American Securities.

In 1983 American Securities sold WUI to MCI Communications which renamed it to MCI International and moved its headquarters from New York City to Rye Brook, New York.

In the 1970s WUI installed and leased to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) dedicated 50 Kbps high speed telecommunications facilities between the continental U.S. and Hawaii, Germany and the United Kingdom to provide a test bed for the DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). This test bed provided ARPA with a proof of concept for the technology of packet switching which later became the Internet.

In 1976, Western Union partnered with E. F. Hutton & Co..

In 1981 Western Union purchased a fifty percent interest in Airfone. It sold Airfone to GTE in 1986 for $39 million in cash.[8]

Due to declining profits and mounting debts, Western Union slowly began to divest itself of telecommunications-based assets starting in the early 1980s.

Due to deregulation at the time, Western Union began sending money outside the country, re-inventing itself as “The fastest way to send money worldwide” and expanding its agent locations internationally.

In 1987, Investor Bennett S. LeBow acquired control of Western Union through an outside of chapter 11 process that was a complex leveraged recapitalization.

The transaction was backed by a total of $900 million in high yield bonds and preferred stock underwritten by Michael Milken’s group at Drexel Burnham Lambert as part of an exchange offer.

LeBow installed Robert J. Amman as President and CEO who led a complete strategic, operational and balance sheet restructuring of the company over the subsequent 6 years.

Mr. Amman executed a strategy of redirecting Western Union from being an asset-based provider of communications services, with a money transfer business as a large but less important part of the business, into being a provider of consumer-based money transfer financial services.

In so doing, Mr. Amman ran the company as two separate companies.

One business consisted of the money transfer business, which was funded and operated to take advantage of the significant growth opportunity.

The second unit consisted of all the non-strategic communications assets such as the long distance analog voice network, satellite business and undersea cable assets. In the 3 year period through 1990 Mr. Amman was supported by Robert A. Schriesheim, also installed by Mr. LeBow, as a special advisor who oversaw the divestiture of the four non-strategic telecommunications assets for about $280 million.

The official name of the corporation was changed to New Valley Corporation in 1991, just in time for that entity to seek bankruptcy protection as part of Mr. Amman’s strategy to eliminate the overleveraged balance sheet while continuing to grow the money transfer business .

The name change was taken to shield the Western Union name from being dragged through the proceedings (and the bad PR that would cause).[9] Under the day to day leadership of Robert J. Amman and the backing of LeBow, the company’s value increased dramatically through its years operating under chapter 11.

Following various restructurings that included negotiations with Carl Icahn who became a large bond holder, Mr. Amman engineered the sale of New Valley in a bankruptcy auction to First Financial Management Corporation in 1994 for $1.2 billion where he became vice chairman, and a year later merged with First Data Corporation in a $6 billion transaction.

On January 26, 2006, First Data Corporation announced plans to spin Western Union off as an independent, publicly traded company. Western Union’s focus will remain money transfers.

The next day, Western Union announced that it would cease offering telegram transmission and delivery,[10] the product most associated with the company throughout its history.

This was, however, not the original Western Union telegram service, but a new service of First Data under the Western Union banner; the original telegram service was sold off after New Valley Corporation’s bankruptcy and now operates as iTelegram.

The spin off was completed in September and Western Union is now an independent, publicly traded company.

Involvement in early computer networking

Western Union telegrams were transmitted through a store and forward message switching system. Early versions were manual telegraph systems. Later systems usingteleprinters were semi-automatic, using punched paper tape to receive, store, and retransmit messages. Plan 55-A, Western Union’s last paper tape based switching system (1948–1976), was fully automatic, with automatic routing.

Western Union was a prime contractor in the Automatic Digital Network (AUTODIN) program. AUTODIN, a military application for communication, was first developed in the 1960s and became the precursor to the modern Internet in the 1990s. The Defense Message System (DMS) replaced AUTODIN in 2000.

AUTODIN, originally named “ComLogNet”, was a highly reliable service that operated at 99.99% availability, using mechanical punched card readers and tab machines to send and receive data over leased lines. During the peak operation of AUTODIN, the United States portion of the network handled twenty million messages a month. Western Union failed in its attempts to engineer a replacement (AUTODIN II), leading to the development of an acceptable packet-switched network by BBN (the developer of the ARPANET) which became the foundation of today’s Internet. AUTODIN service ceased in 2000, years after it had become obsolete.

A related innovation that came from AUTODIN was Western Union’s computer based EasyLink service. This system allowed for one of the first marketable email systems for non-government users. In addition, the system allowed the same message to be sent simultaneously to multiple recipients via email, fax, mailgram, or telex services; as well as receive messages from the integrated formats. With the service, users could also perform research utilizing its InfoLink application. EasyLink Services is now its own company.

End of telegrams

As of February 2006, the Western Union website showed this notice:

“Effective 2006-01-27, Western Union will discontinue all Telegram and Commercial Messaging services. We regret any inconvenience this may cause you, and we thank you for your loyal patronage. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact a customer service representative.”[11]

This ended the era of telegrams which began in 1851 with the founding of the New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company, and which spanned 155 years of continuous service. Western Union reported that telegrams sent had fallen to a total of 20,000 a year, due to competition from other communication services such as email. Employees had been informed of the decision in mid-January.

Telegram service in the United States continues to be available through iTelegram and other companies.[ So Western Union as we once knew it doesn’t exist except in a financial capacity… sending telegrams happens elsewhere.]


In May 2009, Western Union announced their intention to acquire Custom House from Peter Gustavson.

The deal closed in September 2009, with Western Union purchasing Custom House for $370 million USD. Its acquisition led the company to be re-branded as Western Union Business Solutions.[ This is sounding more and more like META BANK]

In January 2011, Western Union acquired the 100% of Angelo Costa, CEO Francesco Costa, a group active in money transfer and services to immigrants. Angelo Costa has a network of 7,500 points of sale in various European countries. The agreement was signed for $ 200 mln.[12]

In July 2011, Western Union acquired Travelex’s Global Business Payments division for £606 Million.[13] 

[ This sounds a lot like What META BANK does… is this a partner or part of META BANK?]

Specific services


Western Union’s website,, allows users to send and receive funds to others, pay bills, or purchase gift cards.

The domain attracted at least 8.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a study.[14]

I fear that Western Union is now a part of META BANK!


As the Internet became an arena for commerce at the turn of the millennium, Western Union started its online services.

BidPay was renamed “Western Union Auction Payments” in 2004 before being renamed back to BidPay.

BidPay ceased operations on December 31, 2005, and was purchased for US$1.8 million in March 2006 by CyberSource Corp. who announced their intention to re-launch BidPay. BidPay was later discontinued by CyberSource effective December 31, 2007.[15]

META BANK has thrived  pretty much due to the advent of the internet BidPay has been discontinued. META BANK also needs to be curtailed and controlled because they haven’t controlled their own actions.

Western Union Mobile

In October 2007, Western Union announced plans to introduce a mobile money transfer service with the GSM Association, a global trade association representing more than 700 mobile operators in 218 countries and covering 2.5 billion mobile subscribers.

The proliferation of mobile phones in developed and developing economies provides a widely accessible consumer device capable of delivering mobile financial services ranging from text notifications associated with Western Union cash delivery services to phone-based remittance options. Western Union’s mobile money transfer service offering will connect its core money transfer platform to m-bank or m-wallet platforms provided by mobile operators and / or locally regulated financial institutions.

Is this a good idea?

Sending and receiving funds

In order to send funds, a sender goes to a Western Union office and presents funds (plus fees) for “Next Day” or “Money in Minutes” service. The sender provides his or her name and address, the recipient’s name, and a designated payment destination. Western Union then provides the sender a 10-digit Money Transfer Control Number (MTCN) that the sender must provide to the recipient. The recipient then proceeds to a Western Union agent office in the designated payment location, presents the 10-digit MTCN, and a photo ID. Money is then paid out to the recipient. In some locations, if a recipient lacks identification documents, the sender and receiver can set up a pre-arranged password. Funds are paid out in cash, although if payment exceeds a local maximum or cash on hand, a check is issued. Alternatively, a sender may forward funds to a recipient by using Western Union’s web site or by phone.

Transfer fees

Fees vary based on the sender and receiver’s location, type of transfer, and whether the money is sent from a counter location or by the web site. [Why couldn’t a check be sent to pay a traffic ticket? Oh the guy may have been Latino and we haven’t been treating them so well lately… That is a pathetic reason for treating other human beings so badly]

Past services

Along with satellite telecommunications, Western Union was also active in other forms of telecommunication services:

WU phone parlors near Times Square, 2008

  • Common carrier terrestrial microwave networks
  • Business communications networks such as Telex and TWX, which was acquired from AT&T Corporation and renamed Telex II by Western Union
  • Landline-based leased voice and data communication circuits
  • Long distance telephone service
  • Airfone air-ground radiotelephone service from 1981 to 1986
  • Cellular phone service for a very short time in the early 1980s (the phones were made by 2-way radio manufacturer E.F. Johnson Company)


Western Union was a major shirt-sponsor of the Sydney Roosters NRL team from 2002–2003. The company still sponsors the team, but not as a shirt-sponsor.

Around the world, Western Union sponsors numerous community events that help support the diaspora communities that use the global Money Transfer service.

The First Data Western Union Foundation donates money to charitable causes around the world. After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Foundation donated US$1,000,000 to the relief effort.[16]

Scam industry

The big queue at an ATM in Masalli,Azerbaijan.

Western Union advises its customers not to send money to someone that they have never met in person. Despite its efforts in increasing customers’ awareness of the issue,[17] Western Union is used for internet fraud by scammers.[18]

Oddly enough, META BANK also prevented a student from access to his own money so that he could pay his rent. META BANK said they had observed possible terroristic activity on the card. The student had only been shopping at places like Walmart… well maybe that would fill the bill, but wherever he had been shopping was where he always shopped… META BANK scammed this student and caused him unnecessary pain with some really bogus story!!! Is Western Union doing this too?

Western Union has been required to maintain records of pay-out locations of the individuals who may be laundering the money, though this information may only be obtained through the use of a subpoena.

Hence advance-fee fraud and romance scammers continue to receive funds via Western Union confident in the knowledge that money lost to overseas scammers is almost always unrecoverable.[19]For this reason it is banned as a medium of payment through eBay.[20][21]

Connection to military intelligence

There were allegations by that Western Union provided United States military intelligence with personal information.[22]

[Check this out]

Blocked transactions

Western Union has begun blocking transactions based on suspicion of terrorist connections, as a part of the company’s involvement[23] with the War on Terror.

Currently, transfers sent from the Western Union web site require telephone confirmation of the sender’s identity.

On occasion, the transfer will fail and Western Union’s customer service will inform the sender that the transaction “does not meet our requirements.”

If details are requested, no information other than the fact that their disclosure is forbidden will be given. Numerous customers have reported this problem.[24][25]  

Is Western Union now an affiliate of META BANK?

Presidents of the company

  • Hiram Sibley (1856–1866)[26]
  • Jeptha Wade (1866–1867)[27][28]
  • William Orton (1867–1878)[28]
  • Norvin Green (1878–1893)[29]
  • Thomas Eckert (1893–1902)[30]
  • Robert Clowry (1902–1910)[30][31]
  • Theodore Vail (1910–1914)[31][32]
  • Newcomb Carlton (1914–1933)[33]
  • Roy White (1933–1941)[34][35]
  • Albert Williams (1941–)[35]
  • Walter P. Marshall (1948–1964)
  • Russell McFall (1965–1979)[36]
  • Robert Flanagan (1979–1984)[36][37]
  • Roland Berner (1984)[37]
  • Robert Leventhal (1984–1988)[37]
  • Robert Amman (1988–1994)[38]

… What was going on in this time period? Perhaps when re-structuring?

  • Alan Silberstein (2000–2001)[39]

… What was going on in this time period?

  • Christina Gold (2006–2010)[40]
  • Hikmet Ersek (2010–)

See also

  • Western Union Telegraph Building (New York) – Former Headquarters
  • 60 Hudson Street – Former headquarters
  • 92 Code
  • Pangram – The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. Used by WU to test teleprinters.
  • Pennsylvania v. New York — Question before the U.S. Supreme Court: when Western Union Money orders are supposed to escheat to the state if not fully redeemed, what state is to get the money?
  • Western Union, 1939 schooner chartered by Western Union Telegraph Company, used in film as slave ship La Amistad


  1. a b c d e f “2010 Form 10-K, The Western Union Company”. United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
  2. ^ Schmotter, James W. (1992). Not Just Another School of Business Administration: A History of Graduate Management Education at Cornell University. Cornell University Press.
  3. ^ Klein, Maury (1997). The Life and Legend of Jay Gould. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5771-3.
  4. ^ Renehan, Jr., Edward J. (2006). Dark Genius of Wall Street: The Misunderstood Life of Jay Gould, King of the Robber Barons. New York: Basic Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-465-06886-9.
  5. ^ Wu, Tim, The Master Switch : The Rise and Fall of Information Empires, New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. ISBN 978-0-307-26993-5
  6. ^ Casson, Herbert Newton (1911). The History of the Telephone. Chicago: A.C. McClurg. pp. 81–84.
  7. ^ Phillip R. Easterlin, “Telex in New York”, Western Union Technical Review, April 1959: 47 figure 4
  8. ^ Bechtel, Warren. “Western Union Chronology of Events – 1851–1995”. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
  9. ^ “New Valley Corporation – Company History”. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  10. ^ Notice of the discontinuation of telegram services – From the Western Union website
  11. ^ Archive of original message. Accessed July 15, 2008
  12. ^ “Equita Financial Advisor to ISI Holding for the disposal of Angelo Costa to Western Union”. January 2011.
  13. ^ “Western Union to Acquire Travelex Global Business Payments”. Businesswire. July 5, 2011.
  14. ^ “Western Union attracts almost 9 m visitors online”. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  15. ^ Authorize.Net Accessed April 2, 2008
  16. ^ “$1,000,000 to relief”.
  17. ^ Western Union joins fraud fight – BBC
  18. ^ David Derbyshire (March 3, 2007). “eBay-er Beware”. National Post (Canada). p. FW5.
  19. ^ Internet Crime Schemes – Internet Crime Complaint Center
  20. ^ Ben Taylor; Khushwant Sachdave (October 29, 2005). “The ebay racketeers”. DAILY MAIL (London). p. 19. “Three Romanian immigrants who conned eBay customers out of nearly Pounds 300,000 were behind bars last night. In the biggest Internet fraud of its kind, the gang fooled 3,000 bidders who they arrogantly described as ‘idiots’ into paying for goods that did not exist. Victims from around the world handed over sums of up to Pounds 5,000 for everything from concert tickets to motorbikes through the money transfer chain Western Union.”
  21. ^ David Brown (December 18, 2005). “Fraudsters Targeted In New eBay Crackdown”. The People. p. 33. “The auction giant will protect customers by BANNING the use of online money transfers. Now eBay will bring in the ban – backed by Western Union and already in force in the US – from January 15 in the UK. It will tell punters to use secure payment systems that verify the identity of users, and which can track both buyers’ and sellers’ accounts.”
  22. ^ Suskind, Ron (2007), The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies Since 9/11, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-7432-7110-3
  23. ^ Western Union Spying Worldwide – Cryptome
  24. ^ Ming the Mechanic: Western Union sucks – The NewsLog of Flemming Funch
  25. ^ Sundaram, Anjan (July 6, 2006). “Muslims denied wire transfers – Business – International Herald Tribune”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  26. ^ “Hiram Sibley Family Papers”. University of Rochester. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  27. ^ Berry, Earl D. (September 5, 1897). “His was a useful life; Story of Jeptha H. Wade’s evenful career. One of the first to build telegraph lines in the West and a founder of the Western Union.” (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  28. a b “Death of William Orton” (PDF). The New York Times. April 23, 1878. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  29. ^ “Dr. Norvin Green’s Death” (PDF). The New York Times. February 13, 1893, Wednesday. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  30. a b “Gen. T.T. Eckert Resigns” (PDF). The New York Times. March 13, 1902, Thursday. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  31. a b “Vail New President of Western Union” (PDF). The New York Times. November 24, 1910, Thursday. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  32. ^ “Western Union ends merger” (PDF). The New York Times. April 9, 1914, Thursday. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  33. ^ William R. Denslow; Harry S. Truman (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J Part One. Duke University Press. p. 183. ISBN 1-4179-7579-2.
  34. ^ “White quits Jersey Road”. The New York Times. May 26, 1933, Friday. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  35. a b “President of the Lehigh Valley Is Named to Head Western Union”. The New York Times. June 18, 1941, Wednesday. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  36. a b Andrew Pollack (November 22, 1982, Monday). “Western Union gets the message”. The Ledger. Retrieved October 31, 2009.[dead link]
  37. a b c “Western Union Chronology of Events – 1851–1995”. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  38. ^ “Robert J. Amman”. Forbes. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  39. ^ “Alan M. Silberstein”. Forbes. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  40. ^ “Christina A. Gold”. Forbes. Retrieved October 31, 2009.

Further reading

  • Wolff, Joshua D., “‘The Great Monopoly’: Western Union and the American Telegraph, 1845–1893” (PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 2008).
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